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  1. I think that's the longest i've ever seen Maliketh for - he usually kicks my ass quick or i've got lucky and disposed of him quick - either way it feels like it's all over in a moment. I really like your ability to deal with him in his second phase; great skill, it was a really good watch

  2. I think you're looking good. I'd second raising mind for summons and endurance to have all your nice shiny gear you're gonna get to hand. If you're good at learning movesets for enemies you can overcome a lesser vigor. Don't neglect it later though, especially when you hit Mountaintops of the giants. The strength of your average enemy there can easily overwhelm in moments. When i did my first run (i'm only on my second) i hardly used a shield but they are really useful for preservation (hence endurance is handy). It just can give you that window you need to hammer them. Good luck! I really love the game...i'm not a souls gamer either

  3. We see things as scattered light off objects/surfaces. The eye will display a black dot along our line of view to it as there is no scattering of the light there, there's just absorption of the light for the insects vision. The black dot is 'focused' because of the ommatidial array in the insect eye.

  4. This is called the 'pseudopupil' - a passive optical phenomenon that has nothing to do with the visual process at all. Whatever the background colour of the eye, the region that images the observer must look dark because it absorbs photons from the observer's direction. The dark spot moves with the viewer because different parts of the eye image different directions in space. - Animal Eyes Michael F Land & Dan-Eric Nilsson

  5. There are important differences between electromagnetic waves and say acoustic or water waves. The mathematics may be similar but the physics is not - the physical differences are profound. Acoustic and water waves require a material medium whereas em waves do not: they propagate even in free space. Matter appearances to the contrary is almost entirely free space sparsely populated by charges which can be acted upon by em fields. This means that an incident em wave exists everywhere in an illuminated mediun. Contrast this with say acoustic waves incident on a wall in air. These waves do not literally penetrate the wall because they cannot carry their propagating medium with them. An em wave penetrates an illuminated medium and excites all the molecules in it to radiate (scatter) waves. These scattered waves superpose in such a way that a total scattered wave is produced that interferes with the incident wave. We cannot observe these two waves separately, only their coherent superposition. When the illuminated medium is optically smooth and homogeneous the net result of this superposition is a reflected wave and a refracted wave with wavenumber different from that of the incident wave. This is only approximately true because a small amount of light also is scattered in directions other than the two special directions of reflection and refraction. An illuminated medium is a phased array of dipolar antennas which accounts for the highly directional radiation pattern of reflected and refracted waves. Radio antennas often are designed to produce highly directional beams; every specular reflector (mirror) does this naturally. - Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation, Craig Bohren and Eugene Clothiaux

  6. Good pic, why do you create blocks with so much cryoembed - they are quite thick, i'm just curious.

  7. It's the same reason why some icebergs look blue and some white...it is down to scattering as everyone has said. White 'bergs have trapped bubbles that scatter incoming light back in all directions just as the crests of waves have many bubbles. When there are no bubbles light is able to penetrate the medium with only short wavelength light (blue) scattered back out. Incidentally, water is inherently blue caused by vibrational transitions of the molecules - Braun and Smirnov

  8. The advent of fire was a boon to our development as all of a sudden through being able to cook our food we are able to extract far more nutrients from multiple food sources. Cooking food is like a pre-digestion step similar in concept to chewing. I suppose, to answer your question, is there a preference displayed by animals? There are many different factors that determine an animals or humans for that matter preference for sustenance at any one time. In evolutionary terms, human brain development and survivability leaped at the discovery of fire.

  9. It is far easier to explain the phenomena of rainbows using language associated with waves rather than photons. There is nothing wrong with doing this except that in doing so you must be consistent in your language. Historically, there were many arguments made as to the nature of light whether it was wave-like or like a stream of little bullets (photons). It turns out that light actually behaves like both and we must employ the most appropriate language to explain the phenomena we're investigating. It's true you could use complicated math to explain a rainbow framed in the language of photons but we'd be here forever and life is short.

  10. Check out the rainbow bridge book by Alistair B Fraser et al. - everything you ever need to know about rainbows

  11. The first one looks like a masson trichrome stain...a couple of the slides look like thyroid too. These are stained using tinctorial stains required to add contrast to sectioned tissue. If you were to look at unstained sections under a microscope you wouldn't see anything.

  12. If you are in a climate where the nights are cold and there's a frost this will damage the grass. The grass close to the tree is protected from this as the tree will radiate EM radiation that the grass absorbs. All things radiate em radiation...the grass further away radiates energy and hardly absorbs any from the atmosphere and hence experiences the low temperatures associated with a frost and is damaged as a consequence. The grass closer still radiates energy but absorbs some from the tree meaning it's temperature doesn't fall as much and is somewhat protected and healthier. Consequently, this is why clear night skies are colder than cloudy ones because we absorb radiation emitted by the clouds. Please read Craig Bohren's "What Light Through Yonder Window Breaks" and "Clouds in a Glass of Beer" - he is an excellent teacher and will explain the point above far more eloquently than me. I went in a rabbit hole with his books and i read them over and over

  13. The Bibles of radiative transfer are the mihalas or hubeby and mihalas stellar atmospheres. There is also a free book online by Bob rutten called radiative transfer. There is more physical insights although of course math are present.

  14. As a follow-up, is anybody experienced at breaking down what you need as a background mathematically to start studying radiative transfer? I have mihalas but i'm really not at that level. I don't want to cut any corners with a naive view to think i can absorb this right off the bat without a foundation, but what is the foundation?

  15. Hi, thank you for your reply, i really appreciate it. I shall have a look at your recommendations

  16. Addressing a broader question of pupil shape, the pupil determines the shape of light falling on the lens. Two big problems that need to be overcome in lens design is spherical and chromatic aberration. In a homogeneous lens, spherical aberration means light at the periphery of the lens is refracted far more than towards the centre. The light is not coincident at a focal point = poor vision. To compensate for this in nature the lens is NOT homogeneous with a density gradient that corrects the problem from periphery to centre. A further complicating factor is chromatic aberration where light at different wavelengths has different refractive indices respectively. This means blue light is refracted more than red light. The strategy to compensate for this problem involves placing receptors sensitive for the different wavelengths of light at different positions. So, blue receptors closer to the lens and red ones further away. Both strategies to correct both aberrations are in harmony/balance. You might feel I've drifted a great deal away from the question of pupil shape but i needed to get that down to explain the next bit...a circular pupil when contracting will deprive the lens of light at the periphery in most instances and this causes problems with the chromatic aberration strategy. A slit pupil (cats for example) permits light to fall on the lens completely in one dimension - periphery to periphery, regardless of whether it's contracted or not preserving the chromatic aberration strategy.

  17. The kidney - in the proximal convoluted tubule there is a brush border. On high magnification the cells have microvilli projections to increase surface area for absorption.

  18. Blindness occurs because of rather than in spite of the milkiness seen in the cornea. The proteins in the cornea have the same refractive index as the underlying aqueous humor. What this means is that when light travels through the cornea there is very little scattering - it is transparent. In this instance the light is directed as it should be; the cornea being the primary means of image formation.* If the corneal proteins start to scatter the light (become milky) the image we see deteriorates.

  19. Being able to identify cells in isolation is not the domain of tinctorial staining (straight forward light microscopy). Immunohistochemistry with panels of labelled antibodies directed against cell surface antigens can do this far more effectively. 'Conventional' light microscopy relies on tissue relationships with overall architecture to provide information for identification. A histologist trains for years in pattern recognition understanding the plethora of 'normal' architectural appearance. This gives them the basis then to help detect pathologies when present.

  20. It wouldn't have been an evolutionary advantage in caveman days as then and now we rely on cooperation to achieve lofty goals. A psychopath would quickly gain a reputation and be ousted. In more modern times, being able to freely move around in a larger society they can cause their havoc and move on. I suppose the question you've posed suggests a traceable acknowledged quality that's deemed an advantage compared to a 'snapshot' of the genetic population whereby a proportion have experienced this brain malfunctioning you mention. Is psychopathy nature or nurture? I would say both. Psychopathy is a spectrum of disorders - Nature is both an evolutionary trend and happenstance mutations, the latter contributing to the psychopathic disorder untraceably. Nurture can mimic evolutionary trends through intergenerational psychological conditioning - a child of a psychopath will have a deprived emotional state and hence emotional reference that is/can be perpetuated. The thing i find interesting is that to me psychopathy is an absence rather than a presence of something. Can an absence pschologically be determined as a conferred advantage in terms of evolution?

  21. Cancer grows and is uncoordinated with that of the surrounding tissue. It persists in the same excessive manner even after cessation of the stimuli that evoked the change. - R.A.Willis

  22. Everything radiates electromagnetic radiation without exception. Even at absolute zero there is radiation emitted as the temperature measure is an average. Bioluminescence is something different.

  23. Poikilocytosis - an abnormal shape of the blood cells, can be caused by a number of factors. Anaemia; liver and kidney disorders are linked to this unusual appearance.

  24. This is much more likely artifact from how smear was made.

  25. I agree. I jumped at an explanation but i think you're right that it's highly likely caused by the prep

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